translated by Shlomo Felberbaum

photographs by Shane Solow

Text and photographs Copyright © 1999—2003 Lost Trails
all rights reserved

Installment 25

That Megabazus, having said this following saying, left for himself a deathless remembrance on the Hellespontians’ part; for having come to be in Byzantium, he learned by inquiry that seventeen years earlier than the Byzantines the Calchedonians had founded their country and, having learned by inquiry, he asserted that the Calchedonians during that time in fact had been blind, because, the more beautiful place having been available to found, they would not have chosen the uglier, if they had not been blind. That Megabazus at that time it was indeed then, who, left as a general in the country of Hellespontians, was subjecting those who were not medizing.

Now, that one was doing that and during the same time was being made against Libya another large expedition of a host, on account of a cause that I for my part will relate forth, after I have made thoroughly earlier the following relation: those who had embarked on the Argo’s children’s children, driven out by the Pelasgians who from Brauron had carried off as booty the Athenians’ women, by those driven out from Lemnos, were gone sailing to Lacedaemon and, sitting on Teugetum, they enkindled a fire. Then the Lacedaemonians, having seen, sent a messenger to learn by inquiry who and whence they were, and they to the messenger, when he was asking, said that they were Minyae, were children of the heroes who had sailed on the Argo and those, after they had touched at Lemnos, had begotten them. So the Lacedaemonians, having heard the account of the generation of the Minyae, sent for the second time and asked wishing what they had come to their country and enkindled a fire, and they asserted that, thrown out by the Pelasgians, they had come to their fathers, because it was most just that that was done thus, and that they requested to settle with those, while they had a share of a portion of honors and had received a part of the land by lot. And the Lacedaemonians it pleased to receive the Minyae on the conditions, on which they themselves wished, and most the sailing of Tyndaridae on the Argo induced them so as for them to do that. Then having received the Minyae, they gave them a share of land and distributed them into tribes, and they immediately married in marriages and the women whom they had brought with themselves from Lemnos they gave away to others.

But, not much time having gone by, immediately the Minyae acted very insolently by demanding a share of the kingdom and doing other not holy acts. Therefore to the Lacedaemonians it seemed good to kill them and they seized and threw them down into prison. Now, the Lacedaemononians kill whomever they kill at night, but in the day no one. Therefore when they were to use them mortally, the wives of the Minyae, being townspeople and the first Spartiates’ daughters, begged to go within, into the prison, and into speeches to go, each with her own husband, and they let them go, because they thought there would be no treachery from them. Then the women, when they had gone in, acted like this: all the clothing they had they gave over to their husbands and they themselves took hold of that of their husbands. So the Minyae, having put on the women’s clothing, as if women, went out outside and, having fled away in a manner like that, they sat in Teugetum.

Now, during that same time, Theras, the son of Autesion, the son of Teisamenus, the son of Thersander, the son of Polynices, was dispatching people for a colony from Lacedaemon. And that Theras was, being in birth a Cadmeian, the mother’s brother to Aristodemus’ sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, and, while those sons were still infants, Theras held the kingdom in Sparta as given to his guardianship, but when his nephews had grown up and taken over the rule, thus indeed Theras, considering awful to be ruled by others, when he had tasted of rule, asserted that he would not stay in Lacedaemon, but would sail away to his kin. Now, there were on the island now called Thera and that same previously Calliste, descendants of Membliareus, the son of Poeciles, a Phoenician man. For Cadmus, the son of Agenor, in looking for Europe, touched at the land now called Thera and, when he had touched, either probably the country pleased him or maybe for another reason he wished to do that following action; for he left down on that island others of the Phoenicians and, in particular, of his own kin, Membliareus. Those inhabited the land called Calliste for eight generations of men before Theras went from Lacedaemon.

Those it was indeed then, to whom Theras with a folk from the tribes dispatched to settle with those and in no way to drive them out; rather he was claiming them as his own. So when also the Minyae, having run away from the prison, were sitting in Teugetum, the Lacedaemonians wanting to destroy them, Theras both brought about a begging off, that killing might not be performed, and himself promised to lead them out of the country. Then the Lacedaemonians having agreed to his opinion, with three thirty-oared ships to Membliareus’ descendants he sailed and in no way led all the Minyae but some few. For the greater number of them turned to the Paroreatians and the Cauconians and, having driven those out of the country, they divided up themselves into six parts and thereafter founded these cities among them: Lepreum, Macistus, Phrixae, Pyrgus, Epium, Noudium. And of those the greater number in my time the Eleans plundered. And the island’s appellation was made after its settler, Theras.

Now, because his son asserted he would not sail with him, therefore he asserted he would leave him as an oin en lykoisi, a sheep among wolves; after that saying the name of the young man become Oiolykus and somehow that name prevailed. Then to Oiolykus was born Aegeus, after whom the Aegeidae are called, a large tribe in Sparta. And because the men in that tribe’s offspring persisted not, they set up on the basis of a divine message a shrine of the Erinyes of Laius and Oedipus, and after that that same thing persisted also in Thera for those born to those men there.

Now, up to that account the Lacedaemonians give an account after the same fashion as the Theraeans, but from that point on only the Theraeans give an account that it happened thus: Grinnus, the son of Aesanius, being a descendent of that Theras and being king of Thera the island, came to Delphi and brought from his city a hecatomb. And there followed him both others of his fellow-citizens and, in particular, Battus, the son of Polymnestus, being in birth a Euphemid of the Minyae. Then to Grinnus the king of the Theraeans who was consulting the oracle about other matters Pythia proclaimed that he should found a city in Libya. And he replied by saying, “I for my part, o lord, am too old by now and heavy to raise myself; bid you then one of these younger men do that”. At the same time he said that and pointed to Battus. Then so much, but afterwards having gone away, they maintained a lack of taking account of the oracle, because they neither knew Libya, where on earth it was, nor dared to an obscure matter to dispatch off a colony.

So for seven years after that it would not rain on Thera, in which all the trees on the island for them, except one, were dried up. Then to the Theraeans, when they were consulting the oracle, Pythia brought forth the colony to Libya. So since there was no remedy for them for the ill, they sent to Crete messengers who were looking for whether any of the Cretans or metics had come to Libya. And wandering round it, those came also to Italus, a city, and in that land they communed with a fisherman for purple, whose name was Corobius, who asserted that, carried off by winds, he came to Libya and in Libya to Platea, an island. Then with a fee they persuaded and brought that one to Thera and from Thera sailed men, spies, at the first not many. So when Corobius had performed the leading down to that very island, Platea, they left Corobius and left behind near food for so and so many months and they themselves sailed the quickest way to make an announcement back to the Theraeans about the island.

Now, when those were abroad a longer time than the agreed on, everything failed Corobius and afterwards a Samian ship, the captain of which ship was Colaeus, while it was sailing to Egypt, was carried away to that Platea. Then the Samians, having learned by inquiry from Corobius the whole account, left behind for him foods for a year and they themselves, brought out from the island and striving for Egypt, sailed and were carried away by an eastern wind and, because the wind would not let up, they passed out through the Pillars of Heracles and came to Tartessus, persons divinely sent. And that mart was untapped during that time so that those, having returned back from it, had quite the greatest profits from wares of all the Greeks, of whom we have knowledge for a certainty, at least after Sostratus, the son of Laodamas, an Aeginetan; for with that one it is not possible for another to contend. So the Samians, having removed the tithe of the profits, six talents, had made for themselves a bronze vessel in the manner of an Argolic bowl and round it were griffins’ heads ranged in rows. Then they made a dedication in the temple of Hera and set under it three bronze colossuses seven cubits tall supported by their knees. Hence for the Cyrenians and Theraeans towards the Samians from that deed first great friendships were cemented.

Now, the Theraeans, when they had left Corobius on the island and come to Thera, announced back that by them an island had been founded off Libya. So it pleased the Theraeans to send a brother from a brother, when he had obtained the thing as his portion by lot, and from all their places together, which were seven, men, and to be of them both leader and king Battus. Thus indeed they dispatched two penteconters to Platea.

The Theraeans then give that account and in the remaining parts of the account by now the Theraeans agree with the Cyrenians. For the Cyrenians in repect to the matters concerning Battus in no way give an account similar to the Theraeans. For they give an account thus; there is in Crete Oaxus, a city, in which Etearchus became king, who in charge of a motherless daughter, whose name was Phronime, in charge of that one, married another woman. And she went in afterwards and thought just also in deed to be a step-mother by furnishing evils and contriving everything against her and finally she imputed lechery to her and persuaded her husband that that was thus. Then he, convinced by his wife, contrived a deed not holy against his daughter. For indeed there was a Themison, a Theraean man, a merchant, in Oaxus; that one Etearchus took over for entertainments and made swear that yea verily he would do whatever service he requested. When indeed he had made him swear, he led out and gave over his own daughter to him and he bade throw that one down into the sea, after he had led her away. But Themison, having become incensed at the deceit of the oath and broken off his foreign friendship, acted like this: he took over the child and sailed off and, when he was coming to be in the open sea, by way of fulfilling as a sacred duty the oath exacted by Etearchus, with ropes he bound thoroughly and let her down into the open sea; then, having drawn her up, he came to Thera.

So thereafter, having taken up Phronime, Polymnestus, being an esteemed man among the Theraeans, kept her as a concubine. Then, time going round, there was born out to him a son hesitant in speech and lisping, to whom as a name was given Battus, as the Theraeans and Cyrenians say, but, as I say, some other, and Battus he was renamed, when he had come to Libya, since because of the oracle given in Delphi and because of the honor that he had gotten hold of he had taken his appellation; for the Libyans call a king battus and because of that I think that, prophesying, Pythia called him it in the Libyan tongue, since she knew that he would be king in Libya. For when that one had become a man, he went to Delphi about his voice and to him, when he was speaking his question, Pythia proclaimed this:

Battus, you came for voice; Lord Phoebus Apollo
To sheep-rearing Libya sends you a founder.

just as if she should say with the use of the Greek tongue, “O basileu (king), you came for voice”. And he replied with this: “O lord, I came to you to consult the oracle about my voice and you make me other proclamations of impossible things, as you bid colonize Libya. With what power? With what kind of band?”. Although he said that, he could not persuade him to make him other proclamations and, when she was prophesying after the same fashion as previously, Battus left her behind in the midst and was gone to Thera.

But afterwards for that one himself and all the other Theraeans things came out adversely and, being ignorant about their misfortunes, the Theraeans sent to Delphi about their present ills. Then Pythia proclaimed to them, if they joined with Battus in founding Cyrene in Libya, they would fare better. TheTheraeans dispatched off after that Battus with two penteconters. And those, having sailed to Libya, because they knew not what else they were to do, departed back to Thera, and the Theraeans were throwing missiles at them as they were led down and would not let them touch at the land, but bade sail back. So they, compelled, sailed off back and founded an island that lies off Libya, whose name, as was said previously too, was Platea and the island is said to be equal to the city of the Cyrenians now.

Settling on that two years, because nothing came out good for them, they left behind one of them and all the remaining sailed off to Delphi; then having come to the oracle, with the oracle they consulted, as they asserted for themselves that they settled on Libya and fared in no way better, although they settled. So Pythia thereupon proclaimed to them this:

If you than I sheep-rearing Libya know better,
Who went not than who went, much I awe your wisdom.

And having heard that, Battus and those in his circle sailed off back; for indeed the god would not let them go away from the colonization at all before they should come to Libya itself. Then having come to the island and taken up whom they had left, they founded in Libya itself a place opposite the island, whose name was Aziris, that the most beautiful glades on both sides surround, and a river flows by its places on one side.

That place they settled six years and the seventh year the Libyans begged them off by saying that they would lead them to a better place and convinced them to make an abandonment. Then the Libyans brought them thence, after they had made them stand up to the west, and the most beautiful of the places, that in their going through and out the Greeks might not get a look, by measuring out the hour of the day, at night they brought them by. And that place’s name is Irasa. So having brought them to a spring that was said to be Apollo’s, they said, “Greek men, here it’s suitable for you to settle; for here the sky is pierced”.

Now, in the time of Battus the founder’s life, who ruled for forty years, and of his son Arcesileus’, who ruled sixteen years, the Cyrenians, being so many as in the beginning were dispatched to the colony, were settlers, but in the time of the third, Battus who was called “the Happy”, Pythia urged all Greeks by proclamation to sail to join with the Cyrenians in settling Libya; for the Cyrenians were inviting them with a view to a redistributing of land. And she made a proclamation that was thus:

Whoever goes to much-loved Libya later than
Land’s giving, I say one day it will repent him.

So, when a large crowd had gathered together at Cyrene, the Libyans settled round, having had many a land of theirs cut off all round, and their king, whose name was Adicran, seeing that they were deprived of their country and treated very insolently by the Cyrenians, sent to Egypt and gave themselves to Apries, Egypt’s king. Then he gathered together a large army of Egyptians and sent to Cyrene, and the Cyrenians, having advanced out with an army to Irasa, a place, and up to the Theste spring, gave battle to the Egyptians and won in the battle. For seeing that the Egyptians had not previously made trial of the Greeks and were despising them, they were so destroyed that some few of them returned back to Egypt. In revenge for that and finding that fault with Apries, the Egyptians stood apart from him.

Then to that Battus a son was born, Arcesileus, who, when he had become king, first was factious with his own brothers, until those left him behind and were gone to another place in Libya and, having cast it on themselves, founded that city that then was and now is called Barce. And at the same time as they were founding it, they made the Libyans stand up from the Cyrenians. So afterwards Arcesileus against those of the Libyans who were receiving them and those same who had stood apart advanced with an army, and the Libyans in fear of him were gone fleeing to the eastern of the Libyans, while Arcesileus followed them as they fled, until in Leucon in Libya he was coming to be in his pursuing after and it seemed good to the Libyans to make an attack on him. Then having given battle, they prevailed over the Cyrenians so greatly as for seven thousand hoplites among the Cyrenians to fall there and after that blow, when Arcesileus was ill and had drunk a drug, his brother Learchus strangled him, and the wife of Arcesileus killed Learchus with treachery, whose name was Eryxo.

Now, the kingdom of Arcesileus Battus his son inherited, who was lame and not sound of foot. And the Cyrenians in regard to the misfortune that had befallen sent to Delphi to ask having established for themselves what manner would they settle most beautifully and Pythia bade that from Mantinea among the Arcadians they should bring for themselves a mediator. Hence the Cyrenians made the request and the Mantinians gave the most esteemed man among their townsmen, whose name was Demonax. That man, having come to Cyrene and learned each of the details, on the one hand made them three-tribed by setting them out in this way—of the Theraeans and those settled round he made one part, another of the Peloponnesians and Cretans and a third of all islanders—and on the other hand having removed precincts and priesthoods for Battus, everything else that the kings had had previously he put into the midst of the people.

Indeed in the time of that Battus things continued to be thus, but in the time of the son of that one, Arcesileus, much disturbance came about concerning the honors. For Arcesileus, the son of the lame Battus and Pheretime, asserted that he would not hold up according as Demonax the Mantinian had made appointments, but he demanded back his ancestors’ honors. Thereafter being factious, he was worsted and fled to Samos, and his mother fled to Salamis in Cyprus. Now, of Salamis during that time Euelthon was master, who dedicated the censer at Delphi, which is worth beholding, that is situated in the Corinthians’ treasury, and Pheretime, having come to that one, asked for a host that would bring them back down to Cyrene. So Euelthon was offering her everything rather than a host and she, taking what was being offered, asserted this also was beautiful, but more beautiful was that giving to her at her asking a host. Because she said that in the case of everything that was offered, in the end Euelthon sent away to her a golden spindle and distaff, and wool too was attached, and when Pheretime again had said about it the same saying, Euelthon asserted that women were presented with things like that, but not with a host.

Then Arcesileus, being during that time in Samos, gathered together every man for a redistribution of land and, while a large army was being collected, Arcesileus was dispatched to Delphi to consult the oracle about his going back down. And Pythia proclaimed to him this: “For the time of four Battuses and four Arcesileuses, eight generations of men, Loxies grants you to be king of Cyrene; however, more than that he advises not even to attempt. But be at peace and go back down to your own land. And if you find the oven full of amphorae, bake not the amphorae completely, but keep sending them away with a fair wind and, if you will bake the oven completely, go not to the land surrounded by water and, if not, you will die, both yourself and the bull that is most beautiful”.

That Pythia proclaimed to Arcesileus. Then having taken over those from Samos, he went back down to Cyrene and, having gained mastery over its affairs, he remembered not the prophecy, but he demanded acts of justices against the men of the opposite faction for his exile. So some of them departed from the country entirely and some others Arcesileus worsted and dispatched off to Cyprus for destruction. Now, the Cnidians, when those had been borne off to their land, rescued and dispatched them to Thera and some others of the Cyrenians, when they had fled down to a large private tower of Aglomachus, Arcesleus heaped wood round and burnt up. And having come to learn after things had been worked out that that was the prophecy, the fact that Pythia would not allow him, if he found the amphorae in the oven, to bake them completely, he willingly kept away from the Cyrenians’ city, because he feared the death given in the oracle and thought Cyrene was the land surrounded by water. And he had as a wife a kin of his and a daughter of the Barcians’ king, whose name was Alazeir; to that one he came and him Barcian men and some of the exiles from Cyrene, when they had learned completely that he was in the public square, killed and in addition his father-in-law Alazeir too. Now, Arcesileus either willingly or unwillingly missed the meaning of the oracle and fulfilled his portion.

Now, his mother, Pheretime, as long as Arcesileus was dwelling in Barce and had worked out evil for himself, she then herself had her son’s honors in Cyrene as she was both possessing all else and sitting by in council, but when she had come to learn that her son had died in Barce, she was gone in flight to Egypt; for there existed the benefactions done by Arcesileus for Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, as Arcesileus was that one who had given Cyrene to Cambyses and undertaken to pay tribute. So having come to Egypt, Pheretime sat a suppliant of Aryandes and bade him to succour her, as she put forward as a pretext that her son on account of his medizing had died.

That Aryandes was the subordinate ruler of Egypt established by Cambyses, who a time later than that in trying to make himself equal to Darius was destroyed. For having learned by inquiry and seen Darius was desiring to leave for himself as memorial of himself that which had not been worked out by another king, he imitated that one, until he took hold of his fee. For Darius, having boiled off the purest gold to the greatest degree possible, struck for himself coin, and Aryandes, ruler of Egypt, made silver that same and now the Aryandic is the purest silver. Then Darius, having come to know that he was doing that, imputed to him another charge, that he was standing up against him, and killed him.

But at that time that Aryandes, having taken pity on Pheretime, gave her the whole army of Egypt, both the foot and the naval, and as general, of the foot he showed forth Amasis, a Maraphian man, and of the naval Badres, who was a Pasargadian in birth. Then before he dispatched the host, Aryandes sent to Barce a herald and inquired who was the killer of Arcesileus, and the Barcians themselves made admission all; for they had suffered many evils at his hand. So having learned that by inquiry, Aryandes thus indeed dispatched off the host together with Pheretime. Now, that proved the alleged cause, the pretext of the account, but the host was sent, so far as it seems to me, for the Libyans’ subjecting. For indeed among the Libyans are many nations and of all kinds and, although the few of them were the king’s subjects, yet the greater number took no thought of Darius.

Now, the Libyans settle after this fashion: beginning from Egypt, the Adyrmachidians are the first of the Libyans to have settlements down, who use Egyptian laws in respect to the greater number of matters and wear the clothing like this very that all the other Libyans, and their women wear a bronze bangle round each of their shins and grow their hair long on their heads and the lice, whenever each takes hold of her own, she bites back and thus casts away. Those then are the only ones of the Libyans to do that and to the king they are the only ones to display the maidens when they are to cohabit, and she whoever proves pleasing to the king is deprived of her maidenhood by that one. And those Adyrmachidians extend from Egypt to the harbor, whose name is Plynus.

Then next to them are the Giligamians, who inhabit what’s to the west, the country up to the island of Aphrodisias and in that place between the island of Platea lies offshore, that the Cyrenians founded, and on the mainland is the harbor Menelaus, and Aziris, which the Cyrenians settled. Also the silphium begins from that spot and there extends from the island of Platea up to the mouth of the Syrtis the silphium. And those use laws pretty near to the others’.

Then next to the Giligamians are in what’s to the west the Asbystians; those settle inland of Cyrene. And the Abystians extend not down to the sea; for the Cyrenians inhabit what’s along the sea. Further, they are drivers of four-horse chariots not least, but most among the Libyans, and they seek to imitate the greater number of the laws of the Cyrenians.

Then next to the Asbystians are in what’s to the west the Auschisians; those settle inland of Barce and extend down to the sea at Euhesperidae. And at the Auschisians’ country’s middle settle Bacalians, a little nation, and they extend down to the sea at Tauxeira, a city of the Barcian country; they then use the same laws as those that those inland of Cyrene also do.

Then next to those, the Auschisians, in what’s to the west are the Nasamonians, being a large nation, who during the summer leave their cattle by the sea and go up to Augila, a place, and gather fruit off the palm-trees; they then are grown many and large, all being fruit-bearing. Further, the locusts, whenever they hunt them, having dried them in the sun, they grind down and thereafter, sprinkling them into milk, they drink. Moreover, they are accustomed to have many wives and they each have intercourse with them promiscuously in a manner pretty near to that in which the Massagetians do; whenever they set up in front a staff, they have intercourse. Also first, when a Nasamonian man marries, it is the law for the bride on the first night to go out through all the banqueters and have intercourse; then, when each of them has had intercourse with her, he offers whatever gift he has and was bringing with himself from his house. And they use oaths and a way of prophesying like this: they swear by those said to have proven most just and best, by those, by laying hands on their tombs, and prophesy by going to their ancestors’ graves and, having prayed, they lie down on them; then whatever dream in one’s vision one sees, one uses that. And they use pledges like this: from one’s hand one makes an offer of drink and oneself from the other’s drinks and, if they have nothing moist, they then take of the dust from the ground and lick.

Then bordering on the Nasamonians are the Psyllians. Those have perished utterly in a manner like this: the south wind for them by blowing dried up their reservoirs of water, and all their country for them, being within the region of the Syrtis, was waterless; then they took counsel with common consent and advanced with an army to the south (I say that which the Libyans say) and, when they were coming to be in the sand, the south wind blew and covered them over with a heap. And since those perished utterly, the Nasamonians have their country.

Then inland of those toward the south wind in the beast-filled place settle the Garamantians, who flee from every man and everyone’s company and neither possess any martial weapon nor know how to defend themselves.

Those indeed settle inland of the Nasamonians and in what’s along the sea to the west the Macians are next, who shave themselves crests by letting the middle part of their hairs go to grow and shaving the parts on one side and on the other side at the skin and for war hides of sparrows of the ground they wear as shields. And through them the Cinyps river flows from the hill that is spoken of as of the Graces and disembogues into the sea and that hill of the Graces is wooded with trees, the rest of the Libya described previously being bare; from the sea then to it is two hundred stades.

Then next to those, the Macians, are the Gindanians, whose women each wear many anklets of hides after a fashion like this, as it is said: for each man that has had intercourse with one one ties oneself round an anklet and that one whoever has the most is thought to be the best on the ground that she has been loved by the the most men.

Then the promontory that extends forth into the sea of those Gindanians the Lotuseaters inhabit, who live by eating the fruit of the lotus alone. And the lotus’ fruit is in size just as large as a mastich-tree’s and in sweetness like the palm-tree’s fruit. Further, from that fruit the Lotuseaters make themselves wine too.

Then next to the Lotuseaters in what’s along the sea are the Machlyans and, although those too use the lotus, nevertheless less at any rate than those spoken of previously. And they extend down to a large river, whose name is Triton, and that disembogues into a large Tritonian lake; also in it is an island , whose name is Phla, and that island for the Lacedaemonians, they assert, there was a prophecy to found.

Then there is also this account that is given, that Jason, when the Argo had been worked to completion underneath Pelion, after he had put for himself into it another thing, a hecatomb, and, what’s more, a bronze tripod, sailed round the Peloponnese, because he wanted to come to Delphi. And him, when in his sailing he had come to be off Malea, a north wind overtook and carried away to Libya and, before he caught sight of land, he came to be in the shallows of the Tritonian lake. Further, to him, when he was at a loss regarding his drawing out, there is an account Triton appeared and bade Jason give him the tripod, while he asserted for himself to them that he would both show the passage and dispatch them off unharmed. So, since Jason was persuaded, thus indeed the way of sailing through and out of the shallows Triton showed them and the tripod he put in his shrine, after he had spoken divinely over the tripod and to those with Jason indicated the whole account that, whenever any of the descendants of those who sailed together in the Argo conveyed away for himself the tripod, then a hundred Greek cities to settle round the Tritonian lake there was every necessity. Having heard that, the natives among the Libyans hid the tripod.

Then next to those Machlyans are the Ausians, and those and the Machlyans settle around the Tritonian lake, while the Triton borders their midst. Moreover, while the Machlyans wear their hair long on the back parts of their head, the Ausians do on the front parts of their head. And in a yearly festival for Athena their maidens, having stood apart in two, battle against each other with stones and pieces of wood and say they bring away to completion their fathers’ practices for the god original to the place, whom we call Athena. Now, those of the maidens who die from their wounds they call false maidens. And before they let them go to battle, they do this: jointly the maiden who is most beautiful on each occasion, after they have adorned her with a Corinthian helmet and a Greek panoply and made her step up onto a chariot, they lead round in a circle. So with what anciently they had been adorning the maidens before the Greeks were made to settle by them, I am unable to say; anyhow, I think they were adorned with Egyptian arms, because from Egypt both the shield and the helmet, I assert, have come to the Greeks, And Athena, they assert, was the daughter of Poseidon and the Tritonian lake, and she, having found some fault with her father, gave herself to Zeus and Zeus for himself made her his daughter. That account they give and have intercourse with their women promiscuously, since they both cohabit not and engage in intercourse like animals. Then, whenever a woman’s small child comes to be fully formed, the men go regularly together to the same spot in the third month and of that one whichever of the men the small child resembles it is considered the child.

Now, those by the sea among the pastoral Libyans have been spoken of, while inland of those into the interior is the beast-filled Libya and inland of the beast-filled a ridge of sand extends down and stretches out from Egyptian Thebes to Heracles’ Pillars. And on that ridge approximately at an interval of ten days’ way are broken pieces of salt in large lumps on hills and on the peaks of each hill darts up from the middle of the salt cold and sweet water. Then round it human beings settle, the last toward the desert and inland of the beast-filled land, first from Thebes at an interval of ten days’ way the Ammonians with their shrine originating from Theban Zeus; for in fact what’s in Thebes, as has been said by me previously too, ram-faced, is Zeus’ image. And in fact also other water is theirs from a spring that during the dawn becomes warm and, when the public square is full, colder; it is midday and it becomes very cold. So at that time they water their gardens and, when the day declines, it gradually lets go for itself of the cold, until the sun sinks and the water becomes warm. Then over a greater extent going to the hot, it draws near the middle of the nights and at that time boils with a bubbling up; the middle of the nights go by and it is made cold up until dawn. And by name that spring is called the sun’s.

(to be continued)

Miltiades' helmet

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